Ir al menú de navegación principal Ir al contenido principal Ir al pie de página del sitio


Vol. 10 Núm. 2 (2021)

Parasites of Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus L. 1758) in sympatry with livestock in Uruguayan agroecosystems

mayo 13, 2024


In the recent past, the Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) has been one of the most characteristic species in Uruguayan grasslands. Currently, the Pampas deer populations are small, endangered and highly isolated, remaining in cattle ranches. The aim of this study is to describe the gastrointestinal parasites of a Pampas deer (O. b. arerunguaensis) population that share paddocks and grazing areas with bovine and ovine populations in each season along one year, using coproparasitological techniques. Morphological analysis of eggs and larvae and the quantification of eggs per gram of feces were performed on faecal samples from three ruminant species (119 of deer, 144 of cattle and 85 of sheep) that share three paddocks. The parasitic taxonomic identification was made from infesting larvae obtained by the egg stool culture. Some genera of parasites were shared between domestic ruminants and Pampas deers, in different seasons. The greatest parasite generic richness was found in winter from calves and ovines, being the largest record also observed in the Pampas deers from the paddock C. The epg counting in samples of Pampas deer from the three paddocks showed a similar seasonal behavior throughout the year (p =0.89). We diagnosed the presence of Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongylus in Pampas deer. Finally, it is recommended to maintain parasitic chemical restraint measures to avoid the transmission of species from domestic ruminants to wild fauna found in sympatry.


  1. Bush, A. O., Lafferty, K. D., Lotz, J. M. and Shostak, A. W. (1997). Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. Journal of Parasitology, 83, 575-583.
  2. Campbell, T. A. and VerCauteren, K. C. (2011). Diseases and Parasites [of White-tailed Deer]. In: Hewitt, D. G. (Ed.), Biology and Management of White-Tailed Deer. Nebraska - Lincoln, (219-249).
  3. Cerutti, M. C., Citterio, C. V., Bazzocchi, C., Epis, S., D’Amelio, S., Ferrari, N. and Lanfranchi, P. (2010). Genetic variability of Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in alpine ruminant host species. Journal of Helminthology, 84, 276-283.
  4. Cook, T., Ridgeway, B., Andrews, R. and Hodge, J. (1979). Gastro-intestinal helminths in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Illinois. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 15, 405-408.
  5. Cosse, M. and González, S. (2013). Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer. Springer Plus 2, 259.
  6. Crempien, C. (1982). Antecedentes técnicos y metodología básica para utilizar en presupuestación en establecimientos ganaderos. Bovinos para carne y ovinos. Montevideo, Uruguay, Editorial Agropecuaria.
  7. Duarte, J. M. B., Merino, M. L., González, S., Veloso Nunes, A. L., Mansano Garcia, J. Szabó, M. P. J., et al. (2001). Order Artiodactyla, Family Cervidae (Deer). In: Fowler, M.E & Cubas, Z. S.(Eds), Biology, Medicine and surgery of South American Wild Animals, Iowa State University press. (402-422).
  8. Fiel, C. and Nari, A. (2013). Enfermedades parasitarias de importancia clínica y productiva en rumiantes. Hemisferio Sur, Montevideo, 752p.
  9. González, S., Maldonado, J. E., Leonard, J. A., Vilà, C., Duarte, J. M., Merino, M., N. Brum-Zorrilla, N. and Wayne, R. K. (1998). Conservation genetics of the endangered Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Molecular Ecology, 7, 47-56.
  10. González, S., F. Álvarez, and Maldonado, J. E. (2002). Morphometric differentiation of the endangered Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus L. 1758) with description of new subspecies from Uruguay. Journal of Mammalogy, 83: 1127-1140.
  11. González, S., Cosse, M., Goss Braga, F., Vila, A., Merino, M. L., Dellafiore, C., Cartes, J. L., Maffei, L. and Gimenez-Dixon, M. (2010). Pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758). In: Duarte, J. M. B., González, S. (Eds.), Neotropical Cervidology. Funep, Jaboticabal, (119-132).
  12. González, S., Jackson, III, J.J. and Merino, M.L. (2016). Ozotoceros bezoarticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T15803A22160030. Downloaded on 04 September 2020.
  13. Happich, F. A. and Boray, J. C. (1969). Quantitative diagnosis of chronic fasciolosis. Australian Veterinary Journal, 45, 329-331.
  14. Hendrix, Ch. and Robinson, E. (2006). Diagnostic Parasi-tology tor Veterinary Technicians, 38 ed. Mosby Elsevier, 285 pp.
  15. Hernández, Z., Guglielmone, A., Peschera, P. and Venzal, J. (1994). Presencia de Lipoptena y Fasciola hepatica en venado de campo (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Boletín Técnico de Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad de la República, 4, 13-18.
  16. Hernández, Z. and González, S. (2012). Parasitological survey of the Uruguayan populations of wild Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus L. 1758). Animal Production Science, 52, 781-785.
  17. Hill, T. and Lewicki, P. (2007). STATISTICS Methods and Applications. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft, Inc. (2004). STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 7.
  18. Lux Hoppe, E. G., Tebaldi, J. H. and Nascimento, A. A. (2010). Helminthological screening of freeranging grey brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira Fischer, 1817 (Cervidae: Odocoileini) from Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, with considerations on Pygarginema verrucosa (Molin, 1860) Kadenatzii, 1948 (Spirocercidae: Ascaropsinae). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 70, 417-423.
  19. McGhee, M. B., Nettles, V. F., Rollor, E. A., Prestwood, A. K. and Davidson, W. R. (1981). Studies on cross-transmission and pathogenicity of Haemonchus contortus in white-tailed deer, domestic cattle and sheep. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 17, 353-364.
  20. Mc Kenzie, M. and Davidson, W. (1989). Helminth parasites of intermingling axis deer, wild swine and domestic cattle from the island of Molokai Hawaii. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 25, 252-257.
  21. Nascimento, A., Bonuti, M., Mapeli, E., Tebaldi, J., Arantes, I. and Zettermann, C. (2000). Infeccões naturais em cervídeos (Mammalia: Cervidae) procedentes dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, por nematódeos Trichostrongyloidea Cram, 1927. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 37, 153-158.
  22. Niec, R. (1968). Cultivo e identificación de larvas infectantes de nematodes gastrointestinales del bo-vino y ovino. Instituto Salesiano de Artes Gráficas, Buenos Aires, 28 pp.
  23. Orozco, M. M., Marull, C., Jiménez, I. and Gürtle, R. E. (2013). Mortalidad invernal de ciervo de los pantanos (Blastocerus dichotomus) en humedales del noreste de Argentina. Mastozoología Neotropical, 20,163-170.
  24. Pato, F. J., Vázquez, L., Painceira, A., Díaz, P., Uriarte, J., Diez-Baños, N., Dacal, V., López, C., Panadero, R., Díez-Baños, P., and Morrondo, P. (2009). Gastrointestinal nematode species shared by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and grazing cattle from Galicia. AIDA (Asociación Interprofesional para el Desarrollo Agrario), 1, 176-178.
  25. Pato, F. J., Vázquez, L., Díez-Baños, N., López, C., Sánchez-Andrade, R., Fernández, G., Díez-Baños, P., Panadero, R., Díaz, P., and Morrondo, P. (2013). Gastrointestinal nematode infections in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula: Assessment of some risk factors. Veterinary Parasitology, 196, 136-142.
  26. Prestwood, A., Kellogg, F., Pursglove, S. and Hayes, F. (1975). Helminths parasitisms among intermingling insular populations of white tailed deer, feral cattle and feral swine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 166, 787-789.
  27. Prestwood, A., Pursglove, S. and Hayes, F. (1976). Parasitism among white tailed deer and domestic sheep on common range, Journal of Wildlife Diseases.12, 380-385.
  28. Pursglove, S., Prestwood, A., Nettles, V. and Hayes, F. (1976). Intestinal nematodes of white tailed deer in Southeastern United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 169, 896-900.
  29. Roberts, F. and O’Sullivan P. J. (1949). Methods for eggs counts and larval cultures for Strongylus infesting the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Australian Journal Agricultural Research 1: pp. 99-102
  30. Richardson, M. and Demarais, S. (1992). Parasites and condition of coexisting populations of white tailed and exotic deer in south central Texas. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 28, 485-489.
  31. Romero-Castañón, S., Ferguson, B., Güiris, D., González, D., López, S., Paredes, A. and Weber, M. (2008). Comparative parasitology of wild and domestic ungulates in the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, México. Comparative Parasitology, 75, 115-126.
  32. Sokal, R. R. and Rohlf, J. F. J. (1969). Biometry. W. H. Freeman and Co. San Francisco, California, 776 pp.
  33. Soutullo, A., Clavijo C. and Martínez-Lanfranco, J. A. (2013). Especies prioritarias para la conservación en Uruguay. Vertebrados, moluscos continentales y plantas vasculares. SNAP/DINAMA/MVOTMA y DICYT/MEC, Montevideo, 222 pp.
  34. Tapia-Escárate, D., Pomroy, W. E. Scott, I., Wilson, P. R. and Lopez-Villalobos N. (2015). Establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Veterinary Parasitology, 209, 138-141.
  35. Ten Doesschate S. J., Pomroy, W. E., Tapia-Escárate, D., Scott, I. and Wilson P. R. (2017). Establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Veterinary Parasitology, 243, 105–108.
  36. Thienpont, D., Rochette, F. and Vanparijs, O. (Ed.), (1986). Diagnosing helminthiasis by coprological examination. Anssen J Research Fundation, Beerse, Belgium, 205 pp.
  37. Turgeona, G., Kutzb, S. J., Lejeunec, M., St-Laurentd, M-H. and Pelletiera, F. (2018). Parasite prevalence, infection intensity and richness in an endangered population, the Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 7, 90–94.
  38. Uhart, M. M., Vila, A. R., Beade, M. S., Balcarce, A., and Karesh, W. (2003). Health evaluation of pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus celer) at Campos del Tuyú wildlife reserve, Argentina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39, 887–893.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.